WASHINGTON — The U.S. House voted Friday to pass a comprehensive legislative package that would crack down on per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, a class of chemicals known as PFAS that are said to cause serious health problems.
The bill’s lead sponsor was U.S. Rep. Debbie Dingell (D-Dearborn), who called the chemicals an “urgent public health and environmental threat.”
Used in tape, nonstick pans and other everyday substances, PFAS have been linked to cancer, decreased fertility, developmental delays and other conditions and have been found in high concentrations in sources of public drinking water and other sites around the country.
The PFAS Action Act includes a series of provisions designed to mitigate their harm. It cleared the House with support from 223 Democrats and 24 Republicans, including U.S. Reps. Bill Huizenga (R-Zeeland) and Fred Upton (R-St. Joseph).
One-hundred-and-fifty-seven Republicans voted against it, as did one Democrat and U.S. Rep. Justin Amash (I-Cascade Twp.). Twenty-four lawmakers did not vote.
Michigan’s delegation was split 9-5, with all seven Democrats voting for the bill.
U.S. Rep. Andy Levin (D-Bloomfield Twp.) has called them the “DDT of our era.”
Upton, who represents Southwest Michigan, noted that the city of Parchment in his district caused Michigan to become “ground zero for PFAS contamination.”
“This issue is serious, and today Congress took action to better protect our communities from PFAS by passing the bipartisan PFAS Action Act,” Upton continued. “This legislation would designate PFAS chemicals as hazardous substances and allows the EPA to clean up contaminated sites in Michigan and across the country. Parchment made it perfectly clear that we need an all-hands-on deck to protect our families, drinking water, and environment, and I will continue to work with my colleagues on both sides of the aisle to address this challenge across the nation.”
But four of his GOP colleagues in Michigan voted against the bill, including U.S. Rep. Paul Mitchell (R-Dryden). He said that although “urgent attention” is needed to “understand, evaluate, and clean up contamination where it exists,” he believes “that is what the EPA is currently doing through its PFAS Action Plan.
“Unfortunately, the PFAS Action Act ignores this ongoing work and hurriedly establishes standards that may be infeasible or inappropriate for state and local governments and other entities,” he said.
Friday’s vote came after supporters of the legislation suffered a stinging setback last month, when key PFAS provisions were struck from the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) before it was signed into law.
Opposition to those provisions from Senate Republicans prompted House Democrats to call the PFAS bill to the floor this month, U.S. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi (D-Calif.) said Friday.
“Last year, our members worked relentlessly to pass bold legislation to tackle the PFAS crisis,” Pelosi said on the House floor. “Unfortunately, at the end of the year, the Senate GOP refused to join the House to secure full, robust protections against PFAS chemicals and key provisions were cut from the NDAA.”
The “Senate GOP obstruction,” she said, “is why we are here today.”
The NDAA does take some steps to address PFAS. It includes provisions that require the U.S. military to transition off of PFAS-laden fire-fighting foam by 2024, ban the foam in exercises and training and test PFAS levels in military firefighters’ blood.
But supporters said the PFAS Action Act passed Friday goes much further.
It would require the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to list certain PFAS chemicals as hazardous substances under the EPA’s Superfund program, which would accelerate cleanup of contaminated sites. That would be a “significant first step while we allow the EPA to study the remaining compounds — which needs to start now,” Dingell said in a press release.
The bill would also create a national drinking standard for certain PFAS chemicals, help people understand water testing results, prevent new PFAS chemicals from being approved and more.
An uphill battle
Despite its bipartisan support in the U.S. House, the bill faces an uphill battle.
First, it must pass the GOP-controlled U.S. Senate, where hundreds of House-passed bills are languishing on the desk of Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.). Senate Environment and Public Works Committee Chair John Barrasso (R-Wyo.) told Bloomberg News that the legislation had “no prospects in the Senate.”
If it passes the Senate, then it would move to the White House, which issued a veto threat on Tuesday.
The act would “create a considerable litigation risk, set problematic and unreasonable rulemaking timelines and precedents and impose substantial unwarranted costs on federal, state and local agencies and other key stakeholders in both the public and private sectors,” the Trump administration said.
The EPA is already “taking extensive efforts” to address PFAS across the nation, it added — an assertion underscored by the EPA in a statement released on the same day as the White House veto threat.
But critics say the EPA’s “action plan” doesn’t go far enough to contain and clean up PFAS and are skeptical the agency will put public health over corporate profits.
U.S. Rep. Dan Kildee (D-Flint) — co-chair of a congressional PFAS task force — called the White House veto “shameful” in a call with reporters Thursday and said the EPA’s action plan is simply an aggressive public relations campaign.
Dingell echoed the sentiment, saying on the call that “the EPA has completely abandoned its responsibility to act.”
Lawmakers from across the country back the bill, but Michiganders — still reeling from the Flint water crisis — are playing a leading role on the issue. “We know what poisoned water does,” Dingell told reporters.
Despite challenges, Dingell said she’s optimistic about the bill’s prospects, saying in a phone interview that she takes “each day as it comes.”
She said she is working with Democratic U.S. Sen. Tom Carper of Delaware — the ranking member of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee — and talking with Senate Republicans in the hopes of getting the bill through the Senate and signed into law.
“I don’t believe in optimism; I believe in hard work,” she said.
She declined to say which Senate Republicans she is talking with, to avoid jeopardizing the bill’s chances for passage.
Kildee said increasing public awareness about the public health threat posed by PFAS will help the legislative effort. A new movie starring actor and activist Mark Ruffalo about the harmful effects of PFAS is also drawing attention to the issue. In the film, Ruffalo plays the environmental attorney who helped bring the harmful effects of a PFAS chemical to light in a case against DuPont.
The efforts are driving the public to speak up about the issue, and that — more than anything else — will persuade Republicans to take action, Kildee said.